Eski-Kermen is one of the biggest cave cities in Crimea. Abandoned and silent today, in the Middle Ages it played a leading role in the life of nearby towns and was a trading and arts centre. It was founded on a remote plateau in the early 6th century, presumably by Scythians and Sarmatians. The residential part with two-storey houses with tiled roofs covered 10 hectares. The ground floor was built of stone and was used for housekeeping, while the first floor, made of wood, housed residential quarters.